Engineering analysis and design software
Civil and Structural engineering

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Load types and combinations

LUSAS Civil & Structural provides a comprehensive range of general loading types to cater for most circumstances. Envelope and load combination facilites help you get the most from your results.

Structural, prescribed and thermal loads are feature based loads that are assigned to the model geometry and are effective over the whole of the feature to which they are assigned. Discrete loads are feature independent. Variations in loading can be applied to all feature load types according to the feature on which they have been assigned

General load types

  • Structural loadings include gravity, concentrated, distributed, face, temperature, stress/strain, and beam loads.
  • Prescribed loading options allow initial displacements, velocity or acceleration to be specified.
  • Discrete loads distribute a loading pattern over full or partial areas of the model.
  • Load trains can be created using a compound load facility.
  • Thermal loads describe the temperature or heat input for a thermal analysis.
  • Variations in load can be applied to all feature load types

Single and Multiple Stage Prestress and Post Tensioning

Single and multiple tendon prestress wizards calculate equivalent nodal loading due to tendon prestressing or post-tensioning and assign these forces automatically to the elements within a model. Computation of tendon forces can be carried out in accordance with AASHTO-LRFD, Eurocode EN1992, China JTG D62-2004 and other design codes. 

  • Tendon profiles can be defined in 3D space or in two 2D planes, to suit local practice, and can be viewed in real-time as they are defined.
  • The ability to input many hundreds of tendons in one analysis that can be assigned to many hundreds of loadcases is made easy by the use of the multiple tendon prestress wizard. Through a series of dialogs, the wizard simplifies the definition of tendon profiles and properties.
  • Elastic shortening losses can be specified for multiple stressing stages useful for staged construction. Locally defined tendon profiles can be used anywhere in the model and any number of times. Tendon material properties including short and long term losses can be specified. 
  • The tendon can then be easily assigned to one or more line features on the model and, more importantly, to one or more loadcases at the same time.
  • Tendon profile data can be tabulated for a defined spacing along a beam and with reference to vertical and horizontal origins.



Envelopes and Combinations

Basic, Smart and Code-specific load combination facilities are a key feature of LUSAS Civil & Structural and allow manual or fully automated assembly of design load combinations. From these, envelopes, contour and deflected shape plots, and results graphs can be readily obtained for any loadcase under consideration.

  • Basic load combinations allow for manual definition of loadcases and load factors.
  • The Smart Combinations facility, unique to LUSAS Civil & Structural, automatically generates maximum and minimum load combinations from the applied loadings to take account of adverse and relieving effects, saving time and reducing the chance of errors.

Smart Combination Dialog

Response spectra

Design code response spectrum data for the following codes of practice are currently supported:

  • ASCE 7-10 (2010)
  • ATC-40 (1996)
  • China GB 50011-2010
  • EN1998-1:2004 Design (Horizontal)
  • EN1998-1:2004 Elastic (Horizontal)
  • FEMA 356 (2000)


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Any modelling and analysis capabilities described on this page are dependent upon the LUSAS software product and version in use.