Case Study

Roof erection analysis of the Gwangmyeong velodrome

  • Global modelling of the stadium roof structure

  • Development of the roof erection concept

  • Linear static analysis of the staged construction sequence

Tony Gee & Partners (TGP) were invited by Daewoo Institution of Construction Technology to provide a full construction engineering service for the Gwangmyeong velodrome roof structure for its client the Cycle Racing Dome PJ Consortium. TGP used LUSAS Civil & Structural to analyse all stages of the roof lifting process to check stress levels, establish erection tolerances, and to ascertain jack down operational limits.

Overview

The city of Gwangmyeong, 20km from Seoul, South Korea, is the location for this ground-breaking, privately funded velodrome. Architecturally designed to resemble a racing cyclist’s helmet, the stadium has a plan shape of an ellipse of 179m in length by 133m in width and has a spectator capacity of 30,000. TGP was employed to undertake detailed design of all the temporary works for the erection of the roof including the foundations, the jacking and support towers, as well as advising the contractor on the erection sequence and specific support arrangements for structural sub-assemblies. The roof, which weighs over 2200 tonnes, acts as a dome and consists of a central compression section connected via interconnecting trusses to a perimeter tension ring - somewhat similar in nature to the hub, spokes and rim of a wheel.

Roof erection sequence

Roof erection was essentially a three stage process. First the compression section, or hub, was assembled on the ground and then jacked up using six strand jacks to a height of approximately 45 metres. Ten temporary support towers were then built to support it prior to connection with other roof members. Next a tension ring was erected on the roof of the concrete stadium structure and lastly trusses were connected between the outer and inner structures. The space between trusses was filled with bracing members.

Gwangmyeong velodrome roof : Ground level construction of the central compression section

Gwangmyeong velodrome roof : Central section raised awaiting completion of temporary support towers

Ground level construction of the central compression section of the roof

Central section of roof raised awaiting completion of temporary support towers
Post-erection

After the roof erection was complete small jacks were inserted between the roof and the ten support towers and the roof was jacked down, with packing plates being removed as it was lowered. During this activity the roof began to act as a dome and the jack loads reduced until the roof became free-standing. The inner ten supporting towers were then removed.

Gwangmyeong velodrome roof fully assembled prior to jack down

Roof fully assembled prior to jack down

Modelling and analysis

To accurately model the erection and jack down sequences, 3D static analyses with LUSAS were carried out. 3D thick beam elements were used and a number of models were needed for each stage of the erection process. Supports in the LUSAS models were generally fixed to represent various temporary lifting /set-down conditions. Spring stiffnesses were used to represent the bearings around the outer tension ring for certain analysed conditions, e.g. the distribution of wind load reactions whilst the roof was still supported on temporary towers. A separate local LUSAS model of tubular bracing above jacking points was also built using shell elements to examine local effects.

Gwangmyeong velodrome under construction [from Cycle Racing Association website]
Gwangmyeong velodrome : Lifting model for the central compression section of roof Gwangmyeong velodrome : Model of the whole roof prior to jack down of the central section
Lifting model for the central compression section of roof

Model of the whole roof prior to jack down of the central section

Chris Harper, TGP’s project engineer said: "We needed to have an accurate understanding of how the roof would perform in order to present a concept to our client that could be backed up with realistic technical information. By using LUSAS we were able to develop our concept within a very short tender period. After that, more detailed analysis was required to examine all phases of the work." He continued: "In particular it was very important for us to derive accurate values for deflections at supports for all phases of construction and to also ascertain tolerances for the lifting operation, such as how much relative deflection between jacks could be allowed, what reactions and jacking loads would be required, and what the forces in the roof members would be during the erection phases." As a result of TGP carrying out the erection modelling with LUSAS, the site engineers had a great deal of confidence in the roof lifting operation and subsequent jack down procedure. Final jack down deflections were within 10% of the LUSAS predicted values which, considering the complexity of the structure and the method of erection, was considered to be acceptable.

Internal view of the Gwangmyeong velodrome roof

"As a result of TGP carrying out the erection modelling with LUSAS, the site engineers had a great deal of confidence in the roof lifting operation and subsequent jack down procedure."

Chris Harper, Principal Engineer, Tony Gee and Partners

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