Engineering analysis and design software
Bridge design and engineering

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Load types and combinations

LUSAS Bridge provides a comprehensive range of general loading types to cater for most circumstances. Vehicle load types, train loading, and prestress and post tensioning to many international design codes are also provided. Vehicle load optimisation facilities help find onerous traffic patterns. Envelopes, basic and smart load combination facilities help investigate maximum and minimum primary and coincident effects.

General load types

Structural, prescribed and thermal loads are feature based loads that are assigned to the model geometry and are effective over the whole of the feature to which they are assigned.
  • Structural loadings include gravity, concentrated, distributed, face, temperature, stress/strain, and beam loads.
  • Prescribed loading options allow initial displacements, velocity or acceleration to be specified.
  • Discrete loads distribute a loading pattern over full or partial areas of the model independent of the model geometry.
  • Compound loads (as used to define load trains) can be formed from a set of previously defined discrete loads and be asssigned to a model as one loading.
  • Thermal loads describe the temperature or heat input for a thermal analysis or for a coupled structural / thermal analysis.
  • Variations in loading can be applied to all feature load types according to the feature on which they have been assigned.

Prestress and Post Tensioning

Single and multiple tendon prestress wizards calculate equivalent nodal loading due to tendon prestressing or post-tensioning and assign these forces automatically to the elements within a model. Computation of tendon forces can be carried out in accordance with AASHTO-LRFD, Eurocode EN1992, China JTG D62-2004 and other design codes. 

  • Tendon profiles can be defined in 3D space or in two 2D planes, to suit local practice, and can be viewed in real-time as they are defined.
  • The ability to input many hundreds of tendons in one analysis that can be assigned to many hundreds of loadcases is made easy by the use of the multiple tendon prestress wizard. Through a series of dialogs, the wizard simplifies the definition of tendon profiles and properties.
  • Elastic shortening losses can be specified for multiple stressing stages useful for staged construction. Locally defined tendon profiles can be used anywhere in the model and any number of times. Tendon material properties including short and long term losses can be specified. 
  • The tendon can then be easily assigned to one or more line features on the model and, more importantly, to one or more loadcases at the same time.
  • Tendon profile data can be tabulated for a defined spacing along a beam and with reference to vertical and horizontal origins.

Vehicle Loading

Vehicle loading facilities in LUSAS Bridge software make load generation straightforward, significantly speeding up the task of defining the loading on a bridge deck. They comprise:

  • Static vehicle loading
  • Train loading
  • Load trains
  • Abnormal loading
  • Moving load generators
  • Vehicle load optimisation

Static Vehicle Loading

Static vehicle, lane, and knife edge loading types are provided for many international bridge design codes. These currently include: 

  • AUSTROADS Bridge Design Code HB77.2, AS 5100.2-2004, AS 5100.7-2004. (Australia)
  • Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code (CHBDC.)
  •  JTG D60-2004 General Code for Design of Highway Bridges and Culverts. Peoples Republic of China)
  • Special vehicles defined as Load Model 3 (LM3) in the Danish National Annex to EN1991-2 (Denmark)
  • EN1991-2:2003 Eurocode 1: (Eurocode) including any country-specific load models as part of a country's National Annex to the code.
  • TIEL 2172072-99 and the National Annex EN1991-2 (Finland)
  • IRC:6-2000 Section: II Loads and Stresses. (India)
  • Israeli loading design code.
  • Korean loading code
  • NATO vehicle loading defined in annex A of STANAG 2021
  • New Zealand loading code
  • Norwegian loading design code
  • Poland loading code
  • TMH7 Code of Practice for the Design of Bridges and Culverts
  • BRO Classification loads (Sweden
  • BS5400, BD37/88, BD37/01, BD21/97, BD21/01, BD 86/11 and EN1991-2 National Annex 2.16 (United Kingdom)
  • AASHTO LFD and LFRD loading, and selected state dependent design loading
  • Additional loading types are being added all the time.

LFD & LRFD Static Vehicle Loading types

Train loading

Train loading options for many international bridge design codes including AASHTO and Eurocode are provided.

Load trains

  • Load trains can be created using a compound load facility.

Abnormal loading

  • Abnormal load generators are included.

Moving load generators

  • Static vehicle and train loadings can be used either on their own or with a moving load generator to automatically create the required set of loadcases as a loading type makes its way across a bridge.

Vehicle Load Optimisation

Significant amounts of time can be saved with the Vehicle Load Optimisation software option, which generates the most adverse combination of live loading for a chosen design code. The interface consists of a series of dialogs requiring only the input of a few parameters to enable an optimised load pattern to be generated for line beam or shell/plate element models. Use of vehicle load optimisation leads to more efficient and economic design, assessment or load rating of bridge structures.

Vehicle Load Optimisation sequence

 

Envelopes and combinations

A key feature of LUSAS Bridge is the Basic, Smart and Code-specific load combination facilities which allow manual or fully automated assembly of design load combinations. From these, envelopes, contour and deflected shape plots, and results graphs can be readily obtained for any loadcase under consideration.

  • Smart Combination DialogBasic load combinations allow for manual definition of loadcases and load factors.
  • Envelopes of multiple loadcases create maximum and minimum results.
  • The Smart Combinations facility automatically generates maximum and minimum load combinations from the applied loadings to take account of adverse and relieving effects. This enables the number of combinations and envelopes required to model a bridge to be substantially reduced. Absolute maximum envelopes are included.
  • Load Combination Wizards use predefined bridge load cases for country-specific design codes and help automate the definition of load combinations for bridges. When used in conjunction with a design code template, combinations of load combinations are automatically created to give the resultant maximum and minimum ULS or SLS loadcases.

Load combination wizards

Predefined bridge loadcases for design codes help to automate the definition of load combinations. When used in conjunction with a design code template, combinations of load combinations are automatically created to give the resultant maximum and minimum ULS or SLS loadcases.

Smart Load Combination Wizard

Staged construction modelling


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Software Information

  Bridge / Bridge plus
green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) Software overview
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green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) Advanced elements, materials and solvers
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green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) Staged construction modelling
green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) Geotechnical / Soil-structure modelling
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green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) Linear and nonlinear buckling analysis
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Any modelling and analysis capabilities described on this page are dependent upon the LUSAS software product and version in use.