Static Vehicle Loading
Static vehicle, lane, and knife edge loading
types are provided for many regional codes of practice. These
currently include: AASHTO LFD & LRFD
(USA), BD21/97 (UK), 21/01 (UK), BD37/88 (UK), 37/01
(UK), BRO94 and BRO2002 Vehicle and Classification loads and BRO Train
loading (Sweden), Korean, Israel, Norway, HK (Hong
Kong), Australia, China, Eurocode vehicle and train loading, Finland,
India, New Zealand, Poland and South Africa. Additional loading types are being added all the time.
Train loading options for many international bridge design codes
including AASHTO and Eurocode are provided.
- Load trains can be
created using a compound load facility.
- Abnormal load generators
Moving load generators
- Vehicle and train
loadings can be used either on their own or with a moving load
generator to automatically create the required set of loadcases as
a loading type makes its way across a bridge.
Significant amounts of
time can be saved with the optional Vehicle
Load Optimisation facility which generates the most adverse
combination of live loading. The interface consists of a series of
dialogs requiring only the input of a few parameters to enable an
optimised load pattern to be generated in accordance with a chosen
code of practice.
Envelopes and Combinations
A key feature of LUSAS
Bridge is the
Basic, Smart and Code-specific load combination facilities which allow manual or fully
automated assembly of design load combinations. From these, envelopes, contour and
deflected shape plots, and results graphs can be readily obtained for any loadcase under
- Basic load combinations allow for manual definition of loadcases and
- Envelopes of multiple
loadcases create maximum and minimum results.
- The Smart Combinations facility
automatically generates maximum and minimum load combinations from the applied loadings to
take account of adverse and relieving effects. This enables the number of combinations and
envelopes required to model a bridge to be substantially reduced. Absolute maximum
envelopes are included.
- Load Combination Wizards use predefined bridge load
cases for country-specific design codes and help
automate the definition of load combinations for bridges. When used in conjunction with a
design code template, combinations of load combinations are automatically created to give
the resultant maximum and minimum ULS or SLS loadcases.
Load Combination Wizards
Predefined bridge loadcases for
design codes help to automate the definition of load combinations.
When used in conjunction with a design code template, combinations of
load combinations are automatically created to give the resultant
maximum and minimum ULS or SLS loadcases.
Single and Multiple Stage Prestress and Post Tensioning
Single and multiple
tendon prestress wizards calculate equivalent nodal loading due to
tendon prestressing or post-tensioning and assign these forces
automatically to a model. Computation
of tendon forces can be carried out in accordance with
AASHTO-LRFD, Eurocode EN1992, China JTG D62-2004 and other design codes.
- The ability to input many hundreds of
tendons in one analysis that can be assigned to many hundreds of
loadcases is made easy by the use of the multiple tendon prestress
wizard. Through a series of dialogs, the wizard simplifies the
definition of tendon profiles and properties.
- Elastic shortening losses can be
specified for multiple stressing stages – useful for staged
construction. Locally defined tendon profiles can be used anywhere
in the model and any number of times. One very useful feature allows
the tendon profile to be viewed in real-time as it is defined.
Tendon material properties including short and long term losses can
- The tendon can then be easily assigned
to one or more line features on the model and, more importantly, to
one or more loadcases at the same time.