Engineering analysis and design software
Bridge design and engineering

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Design code facilities

Two software options allow for design checking of members in steel and reinforced concrete frames.

Steel Frame Design

The Steel Frame Design software option provides full details of all calculations made, referencing all relevant clauses and equations from a design code - giving a step-by-step calculation transparency normally only found in simple frame analysis software. The following bridge design codes are currently supported:

  • AASHTO LRFD 7th Edition (2014)
  • AASHTO LRFD 8th Edition (2017) 
  • CSA S6-14 Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code
  • EN1993-2: 2006 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures - Part 2: Steel Bridges.

A tabular summary of design check results can be produced for selected members and loadcases. Results may be saved for use with Microsoft Excel or saved to a text format. Results can also be added to a model report, and each time the main report is generated the design summary data will be updated to match the current state of the model.

To investigate the design calculations carried out for particular members, formatted design reports can be generated, showing the calculations made and referencing clauses and equations from the code. A formatted design report for the selected member can be added to a model report.


RC Frame Design

The RC Frame Design software option carries out checking of reinforced concrete members subject to bending and axial force at Ultimate Limit State (ULS) and Serviceability limit states (SLS). Regular, arbitrary shaped, tapering and voided members are supported. Layers of reinforcement are defined for each cross-section along with how individual reinforcement arrangements apply over the lengths of lines representing concrete members.

Results are viewed as Utilisation ratios on the model, or as a tabular summary that allows drilling-down into detailed results and creation of interaction diagrams for selected members and locations. Results can be added to a report.

Bridge design codes supported:

  • EN1992-2:2005 - EN1992-2: 2005 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures Part 2: Concrete bridges - Design and detailing rules.

 


Traffic loads to EN1991-2

  • National Annexes supported in the Vehicle Load Optimisation facility include those for the UK, Ireland, Italy and Sweden. Nationally Determined Parameters and the appropriate LM3 (special vehicles) for each country are included. A "recommended values" option is also available (incorporating Annex A vehicles). In all cases there is flexible selection of the special vehicles. Psi/alpha factors may also be modified.

  • Characteristic, Combination and Frequent cases can be generated with a single analysis. Suitable defaults are set, but the load groups to be included may be modified.

  • Eurocode traffic loads (including rail traffic loads) are available in a vehicle library. These may be used in any static or dynamic analysis, moved over the structure in convoys, arranged to any required pattern, and readily combined with other actions.

See Load types and combinations for more details.


Member resistances and 2nd order analysis

Elastic critical buckling load can be determined directly from an eigenvalue buckling analysis in LUSAS enabling the calculation of member resistances to EN1993 clause 6.3. The eigenvalue buckling analysis also enables an assessment of the importance of 2nd order effects, and if deemed to be important these may be obtained by carrying out a geometrically nonlinear analysis.

LUSAS allow buckling analyses to be carried out on structures idealised using beams, plates, shells, or solids or any combination. Material nonlinear effects (yielding or concrete cracking) and boundary nonlinear effects (lift-off, tension-only members etc.) can also incorporated. Animations, contours, diagrams and load / displacement graphs can be viewed for selected nodes.

Typical pedestrian bridge model


Pedestrian dynamics

A LUSAS model that is used to determine natural frequencies for the simple criterion in EN1990 clause A2.4.3.2(2) can be easily updated to include dynamic actions. Nonlinear behaviour (such as tensioning-stiffening associated with the use of cables) can also be incorporated. 

The LUSAS pedestrian load wizard creates the necessary moving and varying-magnitude load, based on input such as the recommended Bridge class (NA to EN1991-2, Table NA.7). Its use:

  • Simplifies and automates pedestrian load generation

  • Generates all loadcases to model the passage of pedestrian groups

  • Provides results that can be printed, exported to spreadsheets, or graphed 

Pedestrian types (walking or joging/running) control the reference load and speed of the moving pulsating load representing the pedestrian or pedestrian group. Both forward and reverse moving loading is possible. Graphs of loading can be automatically created.

Results can be printed and exported to spreadsheets or graphed using standard graphing facilities to assess, for example, the acceleration or displacement at a selected node against time.

Pedestrian Load Wizard


Steel and Composite Deck Design

The Steel and Composite Deck Designer software option enables design checking of multiple sections on steel and composite bridge decks to the Eurocodes, allowing otherwise time-consuming and error-prone manual design calculations to be carried out efficiently. 

  • Force and moment results for selected bridge deck elements are provided by LUSAS and loadcase combinations, defined within LUSAS, are associated with design limit states and phases defined in the Steel and Composite Deck Designer.

Within the Deck Designer:

  • Design calculations covering ULS bending, stress, shear and interaction; SLS stress, web breathing and cracking, and fatigue checks for main members and connectors are carried out rapidly. 

  • Multiple sections with different properties (haunches, stiffeners, etc) can be considered. 

  • Results, output in tabbed dialogs, visually show values that pass or fail. 

  • Graphs and a report containing all input data and output with references to the Eurocode clauses can be easily created.

See Steel and Composite Deck Designer for more information.


RC slab / wall design

The LUSAS RC slab / wall design facility is for use with reinforced concrete slabs (without prestressing) that are modelled using plate or shell elements. It enables contours and values that indicate flexural reinforcement requirements at Ultimate Limit State (ULS) to be plotted, and plots design crack widths at Serviceability Limit State (SLS) for those design codes that support this. Codes currently supported include:

  • AASHTO LRFD 7th, 6th, 5th Editions
  • AS5100-5-2004, AS3600-2009
  • BS5400-4, BS8007:1987, BS8110-1:1997 & BS8110-2:1985, BS EN1992-2:2005/NA:2007, BS EN 1992-1-1:2004/NA:2005
  • CAN/CSA S6-06, S6.1-06
  • Eurocode EN1992-1-1 and EN1992-2
  • IRC: 112-2011, IRS: CBC-1997
  • SS CP65: Part 1 and 2: 1999, SS EN1992-1-1/NA 2008 Amd 1.


Pedestrian dynamics

A LUSAS model that is used to determine natural frequencies for the simple criterion in EN1990 clause A2.4.3.2(2) can be easily updated to include dynamic actions. Nonlinear behaviour (such as tensioning-stiffening associated with the use of cables) can also be incorporated. 

The LUSAS pedestrian load wizard creates the necessary moving and varying-magnitude load, based on input such as the recommended Bridge class (NA to EN1991-2, Table NA.7). Its use:

  • Simplifies and automates pedestrian load generation

  • Generates all loadcases to model the passage of pedestrian groups

  • Provides results that can be printed, exported to spreadsheets, or graphed 

Pedestrian types (walking or joging/running) control the reference load and speed of the moving pulsating load representing the pedestrian or pedestrian group. Both forward and reverse moving loading is possible. Graphs of loading can be automatically created.

Results can be printed and exported to spreadsheets or graphed using standard graphing facilities to assess, for example, the acceleration or displacement at a selected node against time.

Pedestrian Load Wizard


Prestress and post tensioning

Tendon forces are calculated in accordance with:

  • AASHTO LRFD 2nd Edition
  • AASHTO LRFD 5th to 7th Edition
  • BS5400-4:1990
  • CEB-FIP Model Code 1990
  • DD EN1992-1-1:1992 Eurocode 2
  • EN 1992-1-1:2004 Eurocode 2
  • JTG D62-2004

See Load types and combinations for more information.

 


Concrete creep and shrinkage

Concrete creep and shrinkage is calculated in accordance with:

  • AASHTO LRFD 7th Edition 
  • CEB-FIP Model Code 1990 
  • EN1992-1-1:2004 Eurocode 2 
  • IRC:112-2011
  • User - allows user-defined parameters to be specified

Tendon properties

Tendon properties for which prestress calculations will include time dependent effects for any stage of construction include:

  • AASHTO LRFD 5th to 7th Edition
  • EN 1992-1-1:2004 Eurocode
  • IRC:112-2011

Vehicle Load Optimisation

The LUSAS Vehicle Load Optimisation (VLO) software option extends the static and moving vehicle loading capabilities of LUSAS Bridge. It identifies critical highway vehicle and train (rail) design-code based loading patterns on bridges and applies these loading patterns to LUSAS models.


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Software Information

  Bridge / Bridge plus
green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) Software overview
green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) Modelling in general
green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) Advanced elements, materials and solvers
green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) Load types and combinations
green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) Staged construction modelling
green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) Geotechnical / Soil-structure modelling
green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) Analysis and design
green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) Design code facilities
green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) Viewing results
green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) Software customisation

  Bridge LT
green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) Software overview

  Choosing Software
green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) Software products
green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) LUSAS Bridge LT
green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) LUSAS Bridge
green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) LUSAS Bridge Plus
green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) Software selection
green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) Software options

green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) Videos
 
green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) Case Studies

  Additional Information
green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) Linear and nonlinear buckling analysis
green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) Curved girder analysis
green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) Integral or jointless bridges
green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) Post-tensioning
green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) Concrete modelling
green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) Interactive Modal Dynamics
green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) LUSAS Programmable Interface (LPI)

  Example applications
green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) Footbridge design
green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) Rail solutions
green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) Soil-Structure Interaction Modelling

  General information
green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) Hardware specification
green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) Licencing and Networking options
green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) Software prices
green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) Documentation
green_arrow.gif (94 bytes) Links page
 

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Any modelling and analysis capabilities described on this page are dependent upon the LUSAS software product and version in use. Last modified: December 18, 2019.